Da Vinci Surgery Overview

Da Vinci Surgical System

Da vinci Surgical SystemCoronary Artery Disease Overview

Coronary artery disease (CAD) is the most common type of heart disease in the United States . It is the leading cause of death for both men and women, claiming more than half a million lives each year in this country.1 Lifestyle changes, medicines, and/or medical procedures can effectively prevent or treat CAD in most people.

CAD also called coronary heart disease, is a condition in which plaque (plak) builds up inside the heart's coronary arteries. These arteries supply your heart with oxygen-rich blood.

Heart Diagram Mercy Robotic SurgeryPlaque is made up of fat, cholesterol, calcium, and other substances found in the blood. When plaque builds up in the arteries, the condition is called atherosclerosis (ATH-er-o-skler-O-sis). Plaque narrows the arteries and reduces blood flow to your heart. It also makes it more likely that blood clots will form in your arteries. Blood clots can partially or completely block blood flow. When your coronary arteries are narrowed or blocked, blood can't reach your heart. This can cause angina (chest pain) or a heart attack . A heart attack occurs when blood flow to an area of your heart muscle is completely blocked. This prevents blood from reaching that area of the heart and causes it to die. Without quick treatment, a heart attack can lead to serious problems and even death.

Over time, CAD can weaken the heart muscle and lead to heart failure . Heart failure is a condition in which your heart can't pump enough blood throughout your body.

Risk Factors2

Many factors raise the risk of developing CAD. The more risk factors you have, the greater your chance of developing CAD.
  • Unhealthy blood cholesterol levels . This includes high LDL cholesterol (sometimes called bad cholesterol) and low HDL cholesterol (sometimes called good cholesterol).
  • High blood pressure . Blood pressure is considered high if it stays at or above 140/90 mmHg over a period of time.
  • Smoking . This can damage and tighten blood vessels, raise cholesterol levels, and raise blood pressure. Smoking also doesn't allow enough oxygen to reach the body's tissues.
  • Insulin resistance. This condition occurs when the body can't use its own insulin properly. Insulin is a hormone that helps move blood sugar into cells where it's used.
  • Diabetes . This is a disease in which the body's blood sugar level is high because the body doesn't make enough insulin or doesn't use its insulin properly.
  • Overweight or obesity . Overweight is having extra body weight from muscle, bone, fat, and/or water. Obesity is having a high amount of extra body fat.
  • Metabolic syndrome . Metabolic syndrome is the name for a group of risk factors linked to overweight and obesity that raise your chance for heart disease and other health problems, such as diabetes and stroke.
  • Lack of physical activity . Lack of activity can worsen other risk factors for CAD.
  • Age . As you get older, your risk for CAD increases. Genetic or lifestyle factors cause plaque to build in your arteries as you age. By the time you're middle-aged or older, enough plaque has built up to cause signs or symptoms.
  • In men, the risk for CAD increases after age 45.
  • In women, the risk for CAD risk increases after age 55.
  • Family history of early heart disease . Your risk increases if your father or a brother was diagnosed with CAD before 55 years of age, or if your mother or a sister was diagnosed with CAD before 65 years of age.

Although age and a family history of early heart disease are risk factors, it doesn't mean you will develop CAD if you have one or both.

Making lifestyle changes and/or taking medicines to treat other risk factors can often lessen genetic influences and prevent CAD from developing, even in older adults.

Symptoms

Some people do not have any symptoms of CAD until the condition is more advanced or severe. When symptoms are present, they may include a feeling of pressure or squeezing in your chest, shoulders, arms, neck, jaw or back, shortness of breath, and arrhythmias (irregular heartbeats).

Treatment Options 3

Non-Surgical Options - Doctor may recommend certain patients with CAD make lifestyle changes, including:

  • Getting regular exercise
  • Quitting smoking
  • Eating a healthy diet to control blood pressure and cholesterol levels
  • Achieve and maintain a healthy weight
  • Reduce stress

Surgical Treatment Options ? Your doctor may recommend a surgical procedure to treat severe CAD, ease your symptoms and reduce your risk of a heart attack. Both angioplasty and bypass surgery are used as treatments. Angioplasty opens blocked or narrowed coronary arteries.

During angioplasty, a thin tube with a balloon or other device on the end is threaded through a blood vessel to the narrowed or blocked coronary artery. Once in place, the balloon is inflated to push the plaque outward against the wall of the artery. This widens the artery and restores the flow of blood. Angioplasty can improve blood flow to your heart, relieve chest pain, and possibly prevent a heart attack. Sometimes a small mesh tube called a stent is placed in the artery to keep it open after the procedure.

Bypass surgery is often referred to as CABG (coronary artery bypass graft surgery) and is also known as coronary revascularization. During bypass surgery, doctors use healthy arteries or veins from other areas in your body to bypass (go around) your narrowed coronary arteries. This can improve blood flow to your heart, relieve chest pain, and possibly prevent a heart attack.

da Vinci® Surgery for CAD

If you have been told you need bypass surgery, ask your doctor about da Vinci Surgery for coronary artery disease. This procedure is performed without the need for a heart-lung machine, minimally invasively through small incisions made between the ribs. This avoids the need for a sternotomy, its associated risks and complications. (A sternotomy is a procedure where doctors make an 8 to 10 inch incision down the chest, cut through the breast bone and spread the ribs to access the patient's heart.) da Vinci Coronary Revascularization can also offer several potential benefits over open heart surgery, including:

  • Shorter hospital stay5
  • Less pain and scarring4
  • Less risk of infection4
  • Less blood loss and need for blood transfusions5
  • Faster recovery4
  • Quicker return to normal activities4

As with any surgery, these benefits cannot be guaranteed, as surgery is patient-and procedure specific.

 

da Vinci® Coronary Revascularization (Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery)

Your doctor may recommend a surgical procedure to treat severe coronary artery disease (CAD), ease your symptoms and reduce your risk of a heart attack.

blood clot  Mercy Robotic Surgery

da Vinci Surgery is a breakthrough surgical system that enables surgeons to operate with unmatched precision, 3D-high definition vision and superior control. By overcoming the limitations of traditional open surgery, da Vinci Surgery is revolutionizing cardiac surgery.

As with any surgery, these benefits cannot be guaranteed, as surgery is patient-and procedure specific.

 

chest diagram  Mercy Robotic Surgery

 

If you have been told you need bypass artery surgery also known as coronary revascularization, ask your doctor about da Vinci® Surgery to treat CAD. da Vinci Surgery is performed minimally invasively through small incisions made between the ribs. This avoids the need for a sternotomy, its associated risks and complications. A sternotomy requires your doctor to cut through your breastbone through an 8 to 10 inch incision and spread your ribs to gain access your heart. da Vinci Surgery also avoids the need for a heart-lung machine and it's potential risks and complications. There are several other potential benefits of da Vinci Surgery over traditional open heart surgery, including:

  • Shorter hospital stay5
  • Less pain and scarring3
  • Less risk of infection3
  • Less blood loss and need for blood transfusions5
  • Faster recovery3
  • Quicker return to normal activities3
  1. What is Coronary Artery Disease?, National Institutes of Health, www.nhlbi.nih.gov , URL: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_WhatIs.html
  2. Who is at Risk for Coronary Artery Disease?, National Institutes of Health, www.nhlbi.nih.gov , URL: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_WhoIsAtRisk.html
  3. How is Coronary Artery Disease Treated? National Institutes of Health, www.nhlbi.nih.gov , URL: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/Cad/CAD_Treatments.html
  4. What to Expect During Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting, National Institutes of Health, www.nhlbi.nih.gov , URL: http://www.nhlbi.nih.gov/health/dci/Diseases/cabg/cabg_during.html
  5. Poston RS, Tran R, Collins M, Reynolds M, Connerney I, Reicher B, Zimrin D, Griffith BP, Bartlett ST. Comparison of economic and patient outcomes with minimally invasive versus traditional off-pump coronary artery bypass grafting techniques. Ann Surg. 2008 Oct;248(4):638-46.

While clinical studies support the effectiveness of the da Vinci® System when used in minimally invasive surgery, individual results may vary. Surgery with the da Vinci Surgical System may not be appropriate for every individual. Always ask your doctor about all treatment options, as well as their risks and benefits.

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